Please can anyone be kind enough to explain the process that Rstan uses to estimate parameters given a differential equation and collected data. A link to a page or journal article will be appreciated. Thanks

Like here:

?

Hi,

I wrote a blogpost with a very simple example.

https://towardsdatascience.com/bayesian-inference-and-differential-equations-cb646b50f148

I hope it will be useful for you

Thank you @srossell , thank you @wds15, I have been working with Bayesian workflow for disease transmission modeling in Stan to estimate the SIR model parameter values on Covid of a country using the same priors as used in the work , but I keep getting the messages belows

"1: The largest R-hat is 1.73, indicating chains have not mixed.

Running the chains for more iterations may help. See

http://mc-stan.org/misc/warnings.html#r-hat

2: Bulk Effective Samples Size (ESS) is too low, indicating posterior means and medians may be unreliable.

Running the chains for more iterations may help. See

http://mc-stan.org/misc/warnings.html#bulk-ess

3: Tail Effective Samples Size (ESS) is too low, indicating posterior variances and tail quantiles may be unreliable.

Running the chains for more iterations may help. See

http://mc-stan.org/misc/warnings.html#tail-ess

"

I ran the chain up to 7000 iterations and visited the suggested links, yet the chains are still not mixing. I am a maths student however and I am trying to master Bayern and Rstan but is really not working. Thanks

Hi Boyh,

Your question is too open. If you are using Grinsztajn et al’s Stan program, it may be best to approach one of the authors. If you’ve edited their code, then make incremental changes to Grinsztajn et al’s code. Hopefully, in that way you’ll identify you issue.

Good luck

Hmmmm, that paper / model was written at the beginning of the pandemic, wasn’t it?

Maybe it works better with early data, and has to be extended to work up to current events?

yes @Funko_Unko It is and I also using it for the data at the beginning of the pandemic., but I keep getting the followings below

1: The largest R-hat is 1.73, indicating chains have not mixed.

Running the chains for more iterations may help. See

http://mc-stan.org/misc/warnings.html#r-hat

2: Bulk Effective Samples Size (ESS) is too low, indicating posterior means and medians may be unreliable.

Running the chains for more iterations may help. See

http://mc-stan.org/misc/warnings.html#bulk-ess

3: Tail Effective Samples Size (ESS) is too low, indicating posterior variances and tail quantiles may be unreliable.

Running the chains for more iterations may help. See

http://mc-stan.org/misc/warnings.html#tail-ess

I used the prior model used, adjusted it and even increased the iteration number to 7000 (just for 216 observable data), but the chains ain’t still mixing well. R hat used for determining the accuracy of the whole process is still greater than 1.

I do not know what else to do. Thanks

Let’s back up a bit. Can you post your model and perhaps some data so we can have a look? The resources @wds15 posted are also worth checking out.

Attached below is the data and codes. Thank you

covid_data.csv (3.3 KB)

```
//saved as seir.stan
functions {
real[] sir(real t, real[] y, real[] theta,
real[] x_r, int[] x_i) {
real S = y[1];
real I = y[2];
real R = y[3];
int N = x_i[1];
real beta = theta[1];
real gamma = theta[2];
real dS_dt = -beta * I * S / N;
real dI_dt = beta * I * S / N - gamma * I;
real dR_dt = gamma * I;
return {dS_dt, dI_dt, dR_dt};
}
}
data {
int<lower=1> n_days;
real t0;
real y0[3];
real ts[n_days];
int N;
int cases[n_days];
}
transformed data {
real x_r[0];
int x_i[1] = { N };
}
parameters {
real<lower=0> gamma;
real<lower=0> beta;
real<lower=0> phi_inv;
real<lower=0, upper=1> p_reported; // proportion of infected (symptomatic) people reported
}
transformed parameters{
real y[n_days, 3];
real incidence[n_days - 1];
real phi = 1. / phi_inv;
// initial compartement values
real theta[2] = {beta, gamma};
y = integrate_ode_rk45(sir, y0, t0, ts, theta, x_r, x_i);
for (i in 1:n_days-1){
incidence[i] = (y[i, 1] - y[i+1, 1]) * p_reported;
}
}
model {
//priors
beta ~ normal(2, 1);
gamma ~ normal(0.9, 1);
phi_inv ~ exponential(5);
p_reported ~ beta(1, 2);
//sampling distribution
//col(matrix x, int n) - The n-th column of matrix x. Here the number of infected people
cases[1:(n_days-1)] ~ neg_binomial_2(incidence, phi);
}
generated quantities {
real R0 = beta / gamma;
real recovery_time = 1 / gamma;
real pred_cases[n_days-1];
pred_cases = neg_binomial_2_rng(incidence, phi);
}
```

```
setwd("~/R")
nga <- read.csv("covid_data.csv", header=TRUE, sep=",")
# Nigeria population
N <- 211400708;
# time series of cases
cases <- nga$Number_of_Reported_Cases # Number of cases
# times
n_days <- length(cases)
t <- seq(0, n_days, by = 1)
t0 = 0
t <- t[-1]
#initial conditions
i0 <- 5
s0 <- N - i0
r0 <- 0
y0 = c(S = s0, I = i0, R = r0)
# data for Stan
data_sir <- list(n_days = n_days, y0 = y0, t0 = t0, ts = t, N = N, cases = cases)
# number of MCMC steps
niter <- 2000
model <- stan_model("seir.stan")
#pass the data to stan and run the model
fit_seir <- sampling(model,
data = data_sir,
iter = niter,
chains = 4,
seed = 0,
control = list(max_treedepth = 15, adapt_delta=0.99))
traceplot(fit_seir, pars = c('beta', 'gamma', "R0", "recovery_time"))
pars=c('beta', 'gamma', "R0", "recovery_time")
print(fit_seir, pars = pars)
stan_dens(fit_seir, pars = pars, separate_chains = TRUE)
```

Thanks. I’m a bit swapped for the coming days, so will tag @charlesm93 just in case he has some free time.

@charlesm93 , I know you must be really busy, please can you spend few mins and look into my codes, it really matters to me. I have done everything I can. Thank you.

Hi,

Can you print the trace plots, including the warmup phase, and the summary of the fit? Please include `lp__`

in the parameters, that is

```
pars = c('beta', 'gamma', 'R0', 'recovery_time', 'lp__')
```

Once I see these, I’ll make further comments.

I can.

I used cmdstanr running cmdstan-2.26.1 though.

EDIT: And I further excluded a point (cases[107]) which was suspiciously 0 in the middle of the epidemic.

Thanks, can you also include the warmup phase?

Sorry, you did ask for that and I forgot. Here’s what I get when using `inc_warmup=TRUE`

.

Looks weird. What gives?

I think you didn’t use the save_warmup option if you fitted the model with cmdstanr. So it’s returning the same iterations.

Used a few more iterations this time.

Seems like a case of the unidentifiability-itis.

EDIT: Wrong diagnosis. Could be a case of multimodality-itis, but we’re waiting on the lab results [OK, I’m done with the disease analogy now].

For unidentifiability we would like the posterior predictive plots to look similar though, don’t we? Seems unlikely that they do.

They lead to the same R_0, which ultimately controls the dynamics. Here are traceplots of selected points of the posterior predictive:

I can see exactly nothing on the latter two plots.

It does look though like that one chain consistently predicts much fewer cases for day 1 and day 20, where it should be in the order of zero.