Issues with running spatial survival model in Stan

Hi, Stan users and friendly Stan developers.
Could anyone help to give a hint on what should I do to run my model?
I have a model built in Stan. But, I get an error as follows is Stan:

//codes in stan
data {
  int <lower=0> province;
  int <lower=0> n_grid;
  int <lower=0> N;
  vector <lower=0> [province] p;
   matrix [province,n_grid] kernel;
  vector [N] age;
   vector [N] time;
  
  //vector [n_grid] x;
 
  vector[N] censor_status;
}
parameters{
  real beta0;
  real beta;
 vector [n_grid] x;
}
transformed parameters{
  real time_ratio;
  vector [N] lambdaa;
  time_ratio  = exp(beta);
  for(n in 1:N) {
    lambdaa[n] = beta0 + beta*age[n];
  }
}
model{
  matrix [province,n_grid] lambda;
     vector [province] z;
  vector [province] a;
  
  for (j in 1:n_grid){
   target += normal_lpdf(x[j]|0,10);
  }
  target += normal_lpdf(beta0| 0, 100);
  target += normal_lpdf(beta| 0, 100);
 target += gamma_lpdf(lambdaa|1, 1);
  for (k in 1:province) {
      for (j in 1:n_grid) {
          lambda [k,j] = kernel [k,j] * exp (x[j]);
            }
            z[k] = sum(lambda[k,]) * p[k];
            a[k] = z[k]/sum(z);
        }
  for (k in 1:n_grid){
    for (i in 1:N) {
      target += (censor_status [i] * a[k] * lambdaa [i] * exp( -1 * lambdaa [i] * time[i])) + ((1 - censor_status [i])*a[k]*exp(-1 * lambdaa [i] * time[i]));
    }
  }
}

Error in Stan:

"SAMPLING FOR MODEL 'Onicescu.Model3a' NOW (CHAIN 1).
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: Rejecting initial value:
Chain 1:   Log probability evaluates to log(0), i.e. negative infinity.
Chain 1:   Stan can't start sampling from this initial value.
Chain 1: 
Chain 1: Initialization between (-2, 2) failed after 100 attempts. 
Chain 1:  Try specifying initial values, reducing ranges of constrained values, or reparameterizing the model.
[1] "Error in sampler$call_sampler(args_list[[i]]) : Initialization failed."

Regards,
Eisa

EDIT: @maxbiostat has edited this post for syntax highlighting.

You may be getting that if n_grid is somewhat large, because there will be lots of zero-probability parameter values for x and it is likely that one of those combinations will be chosen at random a starting value, which will raise that error. You can constrain some of the initial parameter values with the init (in some interfaces inits) option in the sampling statement. That’s assuming there are no other issues in the model, but it’s the easiest thing to check before anything else.

2 Likes

Thank you very much for your help. Can you explain more about constraining some of the initial parameter values, please?

The best,
Eisa

You should be able to pass a dictionary with the initial values in the sampling statement using the same format of the data that goes into Stan (not sure if it’s called dictionary in R, so check the rstan docs for the init argument).

You have know know or find parameters that will give you a model prediction with nonzero likelihood – it doesn’t matter if they are very “wrong”, HMC will pick up from there and find good values, that’s its job. For some models it is easy to choose small values for the complicated parts and leave the broad parameters with a rough value (e…g in a linear model you may choose the intercept to be the mean of the data and the slopes to be close to zero, for instance, for a survival model maybe there’s something similar you can come up with as initial guess).

For that kind of error you can also try to start the chains repeatedly, maybe you were just unlucky, and with a few tries you can get the chains running without having to specify initial values for them.

1 Like

I appreciate your detailed explanation. When I increased the number of points, the previous error was fixed, but I got the following error again.

"
SAMPLING FOR MODEL ‘Onicescu.Model3a’ NOW (CHAIN 1).

Chain 1: Unrecoverable error evaluating the log probability at the initial value.
Chain 1: Exception: []: accessing element out of range. index 15 out of range; expecting index to be between 1 and 14; index position = 1a  (in 'model6ff865aa19e48_Onicescu_Model3a' at line 50)

[1] "Error in sampler$call_sampler(args_list[[i]]) : "                                                                                                                                          
[2] "  Exception: []: accessing element out of range. index 15 out of range; expecting index to be between 1 and 14; index position = 1a  (in 'model6ff865aa19e48_Onicescu_Model3a' at line 50)"
"

Best regards,
Eisa

I think you may not be getting the error now because you are getting another one before from a mismatch between vector or array sizes, so maybe it’s not fixed. Maybe you can try to remove the spatial/grid component from your model and make smaller model to make sure it’s working as intended, then you can add it back to your full model and see if you can get an initial value that works with the larger model.