I thought I’d share this on discourse before submitting an issue on Github.

The matrix exponential function in Stan is based on Eigen’s implementation and uses a Pade approximation (see Molver and Van Loan, 2003 for a good description of the algorithm). A while ago, I tried monitoring the order of the approximation and found that, unless we’re working on simple matrices, the order of the approximation goes to 13 – which leads to rather intensive matrix operations. Another package, expokit, uses an approximation of order 6 (Sidje, 1998). This might be something we want to investigate. Do we need such a high order, what are the pros and cons, should we give the user control, etc.

If there is interest, I’ll post an issue on github.