# Constraint setup for probit regression

I’m trying to implement the lower, upper, and bounded constraint transformations as a single function. I feel like this is a simpler way to set up Albert and Chib (1993) style probit regression compared to the example in the manual. I’m pretty sure that I’m messing up the log density Jacobian adjustment.

``````functions {
vector ordinalToContinuous_lp(int[] outcome, vector outcomeRaw, vector truncPoints) {
int N = size(outcome);
vector[N] outcomeC;
for (rx in 1:N) {
real lb = truncPoints[outcome[rx]];
real ub = truncPoints[outcome[rx]+1];
if (lb == negative_infinity()) {
outcomeC[rx] = ub - exp(outcomeRaw[rx]);
target += log(1/(ub - outcomeC[rx]));  // wrong?
} else if (ub == positive_infinity()) {
outcomeC[rx] = lb + exp(outcomeRaw[rx]);
target += log(1/(outcomeC[rx] - lb));  // wrong?
} else {
real width = ub - lb;
real ilogit = 1. / (1 + exp(outcomeRaw[rx]));
outcomeC[rx] = lb + width * ilogit;
target += width * ilogit * (1 - ilogit);  // wrong?
}
}
return outcomeC;
}
}
data {
int<lower=0> numThresholds;
vector[numThresholds] cumThr;
int outcome[N]; // min(outcome)=1
...
}
transformed data {
vector[numThresholds+2] truncPoints;
truncPoints = negative_infinity();
for (x in 1:numThresholds) truncPoints[x+1] = cumThr[x];
truncPoints[numThresholds+2] = positive_infinity();
}
parameters {
vector[N] outcomeRaw;
...
}
transformed parameters {
vector[N] outcomeC = ordinalToContinuous_lp(outcome, outcomeRaw, truncPoints);
...
}
model {
...
outcomeC ~ normal(pred, residScale);
}
``````

If you can help me, I’d appreciate it!

The first two jacobians look correct to me but could be simplified to `target += -outcomeRaw[rx]`.
The third though is missing the logarithm.

Recent CmdStan supports vectorized bounds so you can just write

``````transformed data {
...
vector[N] LOWER = truncPoints[outcome];
vector[N] UPPER;
for (n in 1:N)
UPPER[n] = truncPoints[outcome[n]+1];
}
parameters {
vector<lower=LOWER,upper=UPPER>[N] outcomeRaw;
...
}
``````

Setting the bounds to infinity should make the parameter unbounded.

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I can’t do that because I want the truncation points to depend on a parameter. The special `<lower=lb,upper=ub>` syntax only works in the parameters block; I want to set the truncation points in the transformed parameters block, not the transformed data block.

To get the Jacobian adjustment for the bounded parameters, I worked out,

``````  f <- function(x) lb + (ub-lb)/(1+exp(-x))
g <- function(x) log( ((x-lb)/(ub-lb)) / (1-((x-lb)/(ub-lb))))
g(f(-4:4))   # g is inverse of f
D(expression(log( ((x-lb)/(ub-lb)) / (1-((x-lb)/(ub-lb))))), "x")
``````

I think I want the log of the last expression?

Oh, do you mean it should be `target += log(width * ilogit * (1 - ilogit));` ?

Yes.

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