This is a question about unit testing samplers.

- I read the wiki page and I am a bit confused. Suppose that in a given model, I have a parameter
`f`

, and I set it to a known value`f₀`

, simulate data, and using that data I ran Stan (using the model) and get posterior draws`fhat`

after burn-in. Then in

```
Δ = (fhat-E[f]) / MCMC-SE ~ N(0, 1)
```

should I use `E[f] = f₀`

, or the sample average of `fhat`

? Similarly, is `MCMC-SE`

the standard error of `fhat`

, calculated using the effective sample size?

- Cook, Gelman and Rubin (2006)
*[Validation of Software for Bayesian Models…]*propose using posterior quantiles of the true value, transformed into a`χ²`

via a unit normal. Is that related, or complementary to the above approach?